Type 1 diabetes related complications can include:
• eye disease, such as diabetic retinopathy
• nerve damage, such as diabetic neuropathy
• kidney disease, such as diabetic nephropathy
• heart disease and stroke, such as cardiovascular disease
The early stage of diabetic retinopathy, known as "background" diabetic retinopathy, unfolds as the walls of the retina weaken from high blood sugar and high blood pressure, developing small, dot-like bulges, or "micro-aneurysms," which can leak fluid or blood into the surrounding tissue.
In the second, more destructive stage, called proliferative diabetic retinopathy, new blood vessels form on the retina in response to the damage. When called to the spot where damage occurred, the cells generate new blood vessels as part of the repair.
Diabetic neuropathy is the medical name given to progressive damage to the nervous system caused by type 1 diabetes.
Diabetic neuropathy can lead to a loss of feeling in the hands and feet. Reduced circulation resulting from high blood glucose impairs normal wound healing in the extremities, so minor damage can linger and develop into permanent injury.
At the same time, neuropathy can cause severe pain in limbs that otherwise have reduced normal sensation.
Diabetic kidney disease or diabetic nephropathy is a slow deterioration of the kidneys and kidney function which, in more severe cases, can eventually result in kidney failure, also known as end-stage renal disease, or ESRD.
HEART DISEASE AND STROKE
Cardiovascular disease is a range of blood vessel system diseases that includes both stroke and heart attack. The two most common types of cardiovascular disease are coronary heart disease, caused by fatty deposits in the arteries that feed the heart, and hypertension, or high blood pressure.